Grammar General

1. To be

The verb be is used as an auxiliary verb and it can also be used as a main verb. See Types of main verb.The verb be is irregular. It has eight different forms: beamisarewaswerebeingbeen. The present simple and past simple tenses make more changes than those of other verbs.

2. Modal Verb

A type of verb that is used to indicate modality.

We use modals to show if we believe something is certain, possible or impossible:

We also use them to do things like talk about abilityask permission, and make requests and offers:




When we want to say that something belongs to somebody, we use ’s.

Example: I can take my mother’s car.
When we want to say that something belongs to something, we use of.

Example: This is the end of the road.


When we want to say that something was done, we use the verb to be and we put –ed at the end of a verb. This grammar is called the passive.
We use the passive when we don’t know who does an action.

Example: The food will be paid for. My work is finished

Reflexive Pronounce

We use these words when an action goes back to the same person. Example:  I booked a room for my wife and myself. ( myself, ourselves, yourself )


  • The present perfect and past simple – when we speak about the past.
  • Use the present perfect when:
    • It is important that something happened.
    • Something which was completed in the past. ( If something is perfect, it is completed )
  • Use the past simple when:
    • it is also important when, how or where it happened.
    • we tell a story.
Present continuoussomething is happening right speaking
Past continuoussomething was happening in the past.I was winningWe were winning
Past simplesomething happened in the past ( story telling )I saw it yesterdayI didn’t work
Future simplesomething will happen in the futureI will playI won’t play
Present perfectsomething happened or is completed ( have, -ed )have seen it.haven’t finished
Past perfectsomething happened before some moment in the past ( story telling in books )had finishedWe had left before they came
Present perfect continuoussomething started in the past and continues until now ( have been, -ing )I have been waitingFlowers have been growing thorns for millions of years.

Common Grammatical Mistakes

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