1. To be
The verb be is used as an auxiliary verb and it can also be used as a main verb. See Types of main verb.The verb be is irregular. It has eight different forms: be, am, is, are, was, were, being, been. The present simple and past simple tenses make more changes than those of other verbs.
2. Modal Verb
A type of verb that is used to indicate modality.
We use modals to show if we believe something is certain, possible or impossible:
When we want to say that something belongs to somebody, we use ’s.
Example: I can take my mother’s car.
When we want to say that something belongs to something, we use of.
Example: This is the end of the road.
When we want to say that something was done, we use the verb to be and we put –ed at the end of a verb. This grammar is called the passive.
We use the passive when we don’t know who does an action.
Example: The food will be paid for. My work is finished
We use these words when an action goes back to the same person. Example: I booked a room for my wife and myself. ( myself, ourselves, yourself )
- The present perfect and past simple – when we speak about the past.
- Use the present perfect when:
- It is important that something happened.
- Something which was completed in the past. ( If something is perfect, it is completed )
- Use the past simple when:
- it is also important when, how or where it happened.
- we tell a story.
|Present continuous||something is happening right now.||I am speaking|
|Past continuous||something was happening in the past.||I was winning||We were winning|
|Past simple||something happened in the past ( story telling )||I saw it yesterday||I didn’t work|
|Future simple||something will happen in the future||I will play||I won’t play|
|Present perfect||something happened or is completed ( have, -ed )||I have seen it.||I haven’t finished|
|Past perfect||something happened before some moment in the past ( story telling in books )||I had finished||We had left before they came|
|Present perfect continuous||something started in the past and continues until now ( have been, -ing )||I have been waiting||Flowers have been growing thorns for millions of years.|