Grammar General

1. To be

The verb be is used as an auxiliary verb and it can also be used as a main verb. See Types of main verb.The verb be is irregular. It has eight different forms: beamisarewaswerebeingbeen. The present simple and past simple tenses make more changes than those of other verbs.

2. Modal Verb

A type of verb that is used to indicate modality.

We use modals to show if we believe something is certain, possible or impossible:

We also use them to do things like talk about abilityask permission, and make requests and offers:

can
may
must
shall
will
could
might

should
would

Somebody’s

When we want to say that something belongs to somebody, we use ’s.

Example: I can take my mother’s car.
 
When we want to say that something belongs to something, we use of.

Example: This is the end of the road.

Passive

When we want to say that something was done, we use the verb to be and we put –ed at the end of a verb. This grammar is called the passive.
 
We use the passive when we don’t know who does an action.

Example: The food will be paid for. My work is finished

Reflexive Pronounce

We use these words when an action goes back to the same person. Example:  I booked a room for my wife and myself. ( myself, ourselves, yourself )

Tenses

  • The present perfect and past simple – when we speak about the past.
  • Use the present perfect when:
    • It is important that something happened.
    • Something which was completed in the past. ( If something is perfect, it is completed )
  • Use the past simple when:
    • it is also important when, how or where it happened.
    • we tell a story.
TenseDescriptionExample1Example2
Present continuoussomething is happening right now.am speaking
Past continuoussomething was happening in the past.I was winningWe were winning
Past simplesomething happened in the past ( story telling )I saw it yesterdayI didn’t work
Future simplesomething will happen in the futureI will playI won’t play
Present perfectsomething happened or is completed ( have, -ed )have seen it.haven’t finished
Past perfectsomething happened before some moment in the past ( story telling in books )had finishedWe had left before they came
Present perfect continuoussomething started in the past and continues until now ( have been, -ing )I have been waitingFlowers have been growing thorns for millions of years.

Common Grammatical Mistakes

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