Question TypesThesis StatementBody ParagraphsBP ExExamples
Agree or Disagree( Directly make the statement with two reasons from 2 topic sentences )
Education of all kinds should be free of charge because it aids employment and decreases criminal activities.
Give 2 reasons why you agree or disagree
BP1 – reason 1
BP2 – reason 2
BP1.An important benefit of education is that it can boost the rate of employment.

BP2: One should also consider a possible decrease in criminal activities due to an increase in the percentage of literacy.
E.g 1
Advantages & Disadvantages( State that there are more advantages than disadvantages with reasons for each )
1. In this essay, I will discuss that bringing family includes more positives such as eliminating homesickness and providing opportunities and but some negatives exist such as expense and distraction.
In this essay, I will take a closer look at the aforementioned key advantage and key disadvantages.
2. …. has both advantages such as …. and disadvantages like ….
BP1 – advantages
BP2 – disadvantages
Two part (
1. reason
2. good or bad )
BP1 – address first part
BP2 – address the second part
Good or bad?( State your position good or bad and the reason )
While this phenomenon has some downsides, I think it is ultimately a good thing, because it allows us to experience new food cultures and improve our diets.
Give 2 reasons why it’s good
BP1 – reason 1
BP2 – reason 2
Cause and Solution to a Problem( State one cause and one solution )
I believe that the biggest, most important problem caused by high housing prices is homelessness, which can be addressed through rent control and welfare payments to low-income people.
BP1 – cause
BP2 – solution
Discuss both sides & Give your opinion ( 5% )( State both sides and your opinion )
Some astronomers believe we need to know whether extraterrestrial beings are benign or hostile before we alert them to our presence. I believe that since any extraterrestrial being able to communicate with Earth can already hear us, there is little danger in reaching out. 
explores each side in-depth and presents/supports your opinion
BP1 – side one
BP2 – side two


  • Check the question type: Agree or disagree, opinion, advantages or disadvantages.
  • Write an outline
  • Write Introduction – General, Specific and Thesis.


General Idea ( Hook ) 
Specific( Paraphrasing the question, with What and Why )
Thesis ( Main Controlling idea )

Agree? :





Full Essay

Types of Sentences

Compound Sentences = Simple independent sentence + coordinating conjunction + Simple independent sentence.
Two independent simple sentences joined together with a co-ordinating conjunction.

Coordinating Conjunctions

Complex Sentences = Dependent Sentence + 2 or more independent sentence

Complex sentences
Complex Sentences Examples

Coherence & Cohesion

Coherence is how well your essay is organised and how easily it can be understood by the reader

Cohesion is how well your ideas are connected

Essay tips

  • Always START your paragraph with the topic sentence.
    The way to signal to the examiner what the main idea in your paragraph is to start with a sentence that clearly states what you are going to discuss i.e. the topic sentence.
  • Avoid Poor use of transition signals – don’t use them between every sentence in a paragraph
  • Avoid No progression – every sentence in your essay should add something more to your argument
  • Avoid Poor referencing – it is great to reference, but it should always be clear what a pronoun refers to
  • Avoid Parts of the essay cannot be understood – don’t let bad paraphrasing destroy your C&C score!

Coherence sentences.

Coherence is the quality of being logical and consistent.

Connecting sentences.

Cohesive devices
Cohesive devices

Cohesive Devices – Connecting Ideas

ListingGiving examplesGeneralizing
firstly, secondly, thirdlyfor examplein general
first, furthermore, finallyfor instance
To illustrate this
arguably – their arguably luxurious conditions
to begin, to concludeas follows:on the whole
nextthat isas a rule
Reinforcementin this casefor the most part
alsonamelyin most cases
furthermore (besides/in addition)in other wordsusually
moreover ( besides )Result/consequenceHighlighting
what is moresoin particular
in additionthereforeparticularly
besidesas a result/consequence ( usually used for negative results )especially
above allaccordinglymainly
as well (as)consequentlyReformulation
in the same waybecause of this/thatin other words
not only … but alsothusrather
Similarityhenceto put it more simply
equallyfor this/that reasonExpressing an alternative
likewiseso thatalternatively
similarlyin that caserather
correspondinglyunder these circumstanceson the other hand
in the same wayDeductionthe alternative is
Transition to new pointthenanother possibility would be
now,in other wordsContrast
as far as x is concernedin that caseinstead
with regard/reference tootherwiseconversely
as for …this implies that …on the contrary
it follows thatif so/notin contrast
turning toStating the obviousin comparison
SummaryobviouslyConcession (smth unexpected)
in conclusionclearlyeven though
to concludenaturallyhowever
in briefof coursehowever much
to summariseas can be expectednevertheless
thereforeafter allyet
Cohesive Devices

Examples of Cohesive Devices


Examples of chunks of sentences that can be used.

This does nothing to deter ( discourage/prevent ) the criminals from committing crimes.
However, I believe the arts should only be funded up to a point because there needs to be enough money to support public services
While it is crucial for university students to receive financial assistance, I believe their family background should be taken into account.
This is because…
Although I am mostly against taxing unhealthy foods, I believe an exception should be made for foods that contain harmful chemicals.
The reason for this…
I believe the government should offer financial incentives to the public for recycling, but it depends on what is being recycled. For instance,…
The argument for requiring all criminals to undergo community service is one l am in favor of, but only to an extent. To clarify,…
I believe that under no circumstances should minority languages be allowed to perish ( die )

Change word form

Using a word in one form in the first sentence, e.g. health and then change the form of the same word in the next sentence e.g. unhealthy

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Developing your ideas for body paragraphs

Example of Complex Sentence

1. This sentence is slightly more complex than the previous one. 


2. This sentence is complex, whereas the first one was simple. 


3. The previous sentences were more complex because they compared two things. 


4. We need to use complex sentences in order to make our writing sound more academic. 


5. Although these sentences are more complex, they are still easy to understand.


6. If you use complex sentences, you will get a higher score. 


7. Whenever examiners see complex sentences, they jump for joy. 

time phrases

8. Starting your sentence with an ‘-ing’ form is another way of making your writing more formal.

‘ing’ nouns

9. What you really need to do is ensure that you use a variety of complex sentences.  


10. You could try extending your points with a relative clause, which will certainly make your sentences longer.